ORTHOPEDIC

Clinical Studies

TITLE: “Comparison of infrapatellar and subcutaneous adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction and stromal/stem cells in osteoarthritic subjects”

SOURCE: Pires de Carvalho P, Hamel KM, Duarte R, King AG, Haque M, Dietrich MA, Wu X, Shah F, Burk D, Reis RL, Rood J, Zhang P, Lopez M, Gimble JM, Dasa V. Comparison of infrapatellar and subcutaneous adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction and stromal/stem cells in osteoarthritic subjects. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2014 Oct;8(10):757-62.

SUMMARY: Since inflammatory mechanisms have been postulated to link obesity to osteoarthritis, the current study evaluated the ratio of immune cells to multipotent stromal cells within the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SQ) of the knee; each depot has potential as a source of regenerative cells. The immunophenotypes of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) of the IPFP and SQ were determined in tissues from osteoarthritic subjects (n = 7) undergoing total knee replacement. Based on a subset of surface antigens, the immunophenotype of ASCs from SQ of OA subjects was not significantly different from that of relatively healthy and leaner subjects undergoing elective liposuction surgery. Flow-cytometry comparison of SVF cell populations in the IPFP of OA subjects resembled those within the subject's own matched SQ, with the exception of the endothelial marker CD31(+) , which was significantly greater in cells from SQ. In the OA subjects, lower numbers of capillary-like structures and higher numbers of stromal and alkaline phosphatase colony-forming units in the IPFP vs SQ were consistent with this finding; however, ASCs from both depots in OA subjects exhibited comparable adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Thus, the IPFP contains an ASC and immune cell population similar to that of donor-matched SQ, making it an alternative ASC source for tissue regeneration. Further studies will be needed to determine whether IPFP immune cell infiltrates play an aetiological role in osteoarthritis equivalent to that shown in diabetes associated with obesity.

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TITLE: “Scaffold-free Three-dimensional Graft From Autologous Adipose-derived Stem Cells for Large Bone Defect Reconstruction: Clinical Proof of Concept”

SOURCE: Dufrane D, Docquier PL, Delloye C, Poirel HA, André W, Aouassar N. Scaffold-free Three-dimensional Graft From Autologous Adipose-derived Stem Cells for Large Bone Defect Reconstruction: Clinical Proof of Concept. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Dec;94(50):e2220.

SUMMARY: Long bone nonunion in the context of congenital pseudarthrosis or carcinologic resection (with intercalary bone allograft implantation) is one of the most challenging pathologies in pediatric orthopedics. Autologous cancellous bone remains the gold standard in this context of long bone nonunion reconstruction, but with several clinical limitations. We then assessed the feasibility and safety of human autologous scaffold-free osteogenic 3-dimensional (3D) graft (derived from autologous adipose-derived stem cells [ASCs]) to cure a bone nonunion in extreme clinical and pathophysiological conditions. Human ASCs (obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of 6 patients and expanded up to passage 4) were incubated in osteogenic media and supplemented with demineralized bone matrix to obtain the scaffold-free 3D osteogenic structure as confirmed in vitro by histomorphometry for osteogenesis and mineralization. The 3D "bone-like" structure was finally transplanted for 3 patients with bone tumor and 3 patients with bone pseudarthrosis (2 congenital, 1 acquired) to assess the clinical feasibility, safety, and efficacy. Although minor clones with structural aberrations (aneuploidies, such as tri or tetraploidies or clonal trisomy 7 in 6%-20% of cells) were detected in the undifferentiated ASCs at passage 4, the osteogenic differentiation significantly reduced these clonal anomalies. The final osteogenic product was stable, did not rupture with forceps manipulation, did not induce donor site morbidity, and was easily implanted directly into the bone defect. No acute (<3 mo) side effects, such as impaired wound healing, pain, inflammatory reaction, and infection, or long-term side effects, such as tumor development, were associated with the graft up to 4 years after transplantation. We report for the first time that autologous ASC can be fully differentiated into a 3D osteogenic-like implant without any scaffold. We demonstrated that this engineered tissue can safely promote osteogenesis in extreme conditions of bone nonunions with minor donor site morbidity and no oncological side effects.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Dufrane 2015 PDF


TITLE: “Adipose Derived Stromal Cell (ADSC) Injections for Pain Management of Osteoarthritis in the Human Knee Joint”

SOURCE: Fodor PB, Paulseth SG. Adipose Derived Stromal Cell (ADSC) Injections for Pain Management of Osteoarthritis in the Human Knee Joint. Aesthet Surg J. 2016 Feb;36(2):229-36.

SUMMARY: The primary objective of the study was evaluation of the safety of intra-articular injection of SVF. The secondary objective was to assess initial feasibility for reduction of pain in osteoarthritic knees. Adipose-derived SVF cells were obtained through enzymatic disaggregation of lipoaspirate, resuspension in 3 mL of Lactated Ringer's Solution, and injection directly into the intra-articular space of the knee, with a mean of 14.1 million viable, nucleated SVF cells per knee. Metrics included monitoring of adverse events and preoperative to postoperative changes in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the VAS pain scale, range of motion (ROM), timed up-and-go (TUG), and MRI. No infections, acute pain flares, or other adverse events were reported. At 3-months postoperative, there was a statistically significant improvement in WOMAC and VAS scores (P < .02 and P < .001, respectively), which was maintained at 1 year. Physical therapy measurements for ROM and TUG both improved from preoperative to 3-months postoperative. Standard MRI assessment from preoperative to 3-months postoperative showed no detectable structural differences. All patients attained full activity with decreased knee pain. Autologous SVF was shown to be safe and to present a new potential therapy for reduction of pain for osteoarthritis of the knee. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Therapeutic.

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TITLE: “Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections”

SOURCE: Freitag J, Ford J, Bates D, Boyd R, Hahne A, Wang Y, Cicuttini F, Huguenin L, Norsworthy C, Shah K. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections. BMJ Open. 2015 Dec 18;5(12):e009332.

SUMMARY: A pilot single-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. 40 participants aged 18-50 years, with isolated femoral condyle chondral defects and awaiting planned arthroscopic microfracture will be randomly allocated to a control group (receiving no additional treatment) or treatment group (receiving postoperative adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment). Primary outcome measures will include MRI assessment of cartilage volume and defects and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will include further MRI assessment of bone marrow lesions, bone area and T2 cartilage mapping, a 0-10 Numerical Pain Rating Scale, a Global Impression of Change score and a treatment satisfaction scale. Adverse events and cointerventions will be recorded. Initial outcome follow-up for publication of results will be at 12 months. Further annual follow-up to assess long-term differences between the two group will occur.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Freitag 2015 PDF


TITLE: “Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a proof-of-concept clinical trial”

SOURCE: Jo CH, Lee YG, Shin WH, Kim H, Chai JW, Jeong EC, Kim JE, Shim H, Shin JS, Shin IS, Ra JC, Oh S, Yoon KS. Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a proof-of-concept clinical trial. Stem Cells. 2014 May;32(5):1254-66.

SUMMARY: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have a potential for articular cartilage regeneration. However, most studies focused on focal cartilage defect through surgical implantation. For the treatment of generalized cartilage loss in osteoarthritis, an alternative delivery strategy would be more appropriate. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intra-articular injection of autologous adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) for knee osteoarthritis. We enrolled 18 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and injected AD MSCs into the knee. The phase I study consists of three dose-escalation cohorts; the low-dose (1.0 × 10(7) cells), mid-dose (5.0 × 10(7)), and high-dose (1.0 × 10(8)) group with three patients each. The phase II included nine patients receiving the high-dose. The primary outcomes were the safety and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical, radiological, arthroscopic, and histological evaluations. There was no treatment-related adverse event. The WOMAC score improved at 6 months after injection in the high-dose group. The size of cartilage defect decreased while the volume of cartilage increased in the medial femoral and tibial condyles of the high-dose group. Arthroscopy showed that the size of cartilage defect decreased in the medial femoral and medial tibial condyles of the high-dose group. Histology demonstrated thick, hyaline-like cartilage regeneration. These results showed that intra-articular injection of 1.0 × 10(8) AD MSCs into the osteoarthritic knee improved function and pain of the knee joint without causing adverse events, and reduced cartilage defects by regeneration of hyaline-like articular cartilage.

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TITLE: “Intra-articular Injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A 2-Year Follow-up Study”

SOURCE: Jo CH, Chai JW, Jeong EC, Oh S, Shin JS, Shim H, Yoon KS. Intra-articular Injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A 2-Year Follow-up Study. Am J Sports Med. 2017 Oct;45(12):2774-2783.

SUMMARY: To assess the midterm safety and efficacy of an intra-articular injection of autologous adipose tissue-derived (AD) MSCs for knee OA at 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Eighteen patients with OA of the knee were enrolled (3 male, 15 female; mean age, 61.8 ± 6.6 years [range, 52-72 years]). Patients in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups received an intra-articular injection of 1.0 × 107, 5.0 × 107, and 1.0 × 108 AD MSCs into the knee, respectively. Clinical and structural evaluations were performed with widely used methodologies including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and measurements of the size and depth of the cartilage defect, signal intensity of regenerated cartilage, and cartilage volume using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no treatment-related adverse events during the 2-year period. An intra-articular injection of autologous AD MSCs improved knee function, as measured with the WOMAC, Knee Society clinical rating system (KSS), and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and reduced knee pain, as measured with the visual analog scale (VAS), for up to 2 years regardless of the cell dosage. However, statistical significance was found mainly in the high-dose group. Clinical outcomes tended to deteriorate after 1 year in the low- and medium-dose groups, whereas those in the high-dose group plateaued until 2 years. The structural outcomes evaluated with MRI also showed similar trends. This study identified the safety and efficacy of an intra-articular injection of AD MSCs into the OA knee over 2 years, encouraging a larger randomized clinical trial. However, this study also showed potential concerns about the durability of clinical and structural outcomes, suggesting the need for further studies.

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TITLE: “Does an injection of a stromal vascular fraction containing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells influence the outcomes of marrow stimulation in osteochondral lesions of the talus? A clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study”

SOURCE: Kim YS, Lee HJ, Choi YJ, Kim YI, Koh YG. Does an injection of a stromal vascular fraction containing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells influence the outcomes of marrow stimulation in osteochondral lesions of the talus? A clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Sports Med. 2014 Oct;42(10):2424-34.

SUMMARY: To compare the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes between an injection of MSCs with marrow stimulation and marrow stimulation alone in patients with OLTs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 49 patients (50 ankles) with OLTs underwent follow-up MRI after arthroscopic treatment. Among these 50 ankles, 26 underwent marrow stimulation alone (conventional group), and 24 underwent marrow stimulation with an injection of a stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing MSCs (MSC group). Clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, and Tegner activity scale. The magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used for the MRI evaluation of repaired lesions. The mean VAS score, AOFAS score, and Tegner score improved from 7.1 ± 1.2, 68.5 ± 5.6, and 3.4 ± 0.6 to 3.9 ± 0.8, 78.3 ± 4.9, and 3.5 ± 0.8, respectively, in the conventional group and from 7.1 ± 0.8, 67.7 ± 4.7, and 3.4 ± 0.5 to 3.2 ± 0.8, 83.3 ± 7.0, and 3.9 ± 0.7, respectively, in the MSC group. All clinical outcomes, including the VAS, AOFAS, and Tegner scores, improved significantly in the MSC group compared with the conventional group (P = .003, .009, and .041, respectively). There was a significant difference (P = .037) in the mean MOCART score between the conventional and MSC groups (49.4 ± 16.6 vs 62.1 ± 21.8, respectively), and significant correlations of the MOCART score with clinical outcomes were found in both groups (P < .05). Patient age (≥46.1 years), large lesion size (≥151.2 mm(2)), and the presence of subchondral cysts were associated with a worse MOCART score in the conventional group (P = .015, .004, and .013, respectively) but not in the MSC group. Clinical and MRI outcomes of an injection of an SVF containing MSCs with marrow stimulation were encouraging, compared with marrow stimulation alone, for the treatment of OLTs. Therefore, an injection of an SVF containing MSCs with marrow stimulation should be considered as a treatment for OLTs, even when poor prognostic factors, including older age, large-sized lesion, or the presence of subchondral cysts, exist.

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TITLE: “Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Microfracture Versus Microfracture Alone: 2-Year Follow-up of a Prospective Randomized Trial”

SOURCE: Koh YG, Kwon OR, Kim YS, Choi YJ, Tak DH. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Microfracture Versus Microfracture Alone: 2-Year Follow-up of a Prospective Randomized Trial. Arthroscopy. 2016 Jan;32(1):97-109.

SUMMARY: Patients who were aged 18 to 50 years and had a single International Cartilage Repair Society grade III/IV symptomatic cartilage defect (≥3 cm(2)) on the femoral condyle were randomized to receive ADSCs with fibrin glue and MFX treatment (group 1, n = 40) or MFX treatment alone (group 2, n = 40). There was a lack of blinding for patients because of the additional intervention method (liposuction). The cartilage defect was diagnosed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and quantitative and qualitative assessments of the repair tissue were carried out at 24 months by using the Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue scoring system with follow-up MRI. Clinical results were evaluated using the Lysholm score, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and a 10-point visual analog scale for pain (0 points, no pain; 10 points, worst possible pain) preoperatively and postoperatively at 3 months, 12 months, and the last follow-up visit. The 2 groups had similar baseline patient characteristics. Follow-up MRI was performed at 24 months (mean, 24.3 months; range, 24.0 to 25.1 months) after the operation. Group 1 included 26 patients (65%) who had complete cartilage coverage of the lesion at follow-up compared with 18 patients (45%) in group 2. Significantly better signal intensity was observed for the repair tissue in group 1, with 32 patients (80%) having normal or nearly normal signal intensity (i.e., complete cartilage coverage of the lesion) compared with 28 patients (72.5%) in group 2. The mean clinical follow-up period was 27.4 months (range, 26 to 30 months). The improvements in the mean KOOS pain and symptom subscores were significantly greater at follow-up in group 1 than in group 2 (pain, 36.6 ± 11.9 in group 1 and 30.1 ± 14.7 in group 2 [P = .034]; symptoms, 32.3 ± 7.2 in group 1 and 27.8 ± 6.8 in group 2 [P = .005]). However, the improvements in the other subscores were not significantly different between group 1 and group 2 (activities of daily living, 38.5 ± 12.8 and 37.6 ± 12.9, respectively [P = .767]; sports and recreation, 33.9 ± 10.3 and 31.6 ± 11.0, respectively [P = .338]; quality of life, 38.4 ± 13.1 and 37.8 ± 12.0, respectively [P = .650]). Among the 80 patients, second-look arthroscopies were performed in 57 knees (30 in group 1 and 27 in group 2), and biopsy procedures were performed during these arthroscopies for 18 patients in group 1 and 16 patients in group 2. The second-look arthroscopies showed good repair tissue quality, although no significant intergroup difference was observed. The mean total histologic score was 1,054 for group 1 compared with 967 for group 2 (P = .036). Age, lesion size, duration of symptoms before surgery, mechanism of injury, and combined procedures were not correlated with clinical results, Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue scores, and histologic outcomes at short-term follow-up. Compared with MFX alone, MFX and ADSCs with fibrin glue provided radiologic and KOOS pain and symptom subscore improvements, with no differences in activity, sports, or quality-of-life subscores, in symptomatic single cartilage defects of the knee that were 3 cm(2) or larger, with similar structural repair tissue.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Not available for public download


TITLE: “Infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis”

SOURCE: Koh YG, Choi YJ. Infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis. Knee. 2012 Dec;19(6):902-7.

SUMMARY: Twenty five stem cell injections combined with arthroscopic debridement were administered to patients with knee OA. A mean of 1.89 × 10(6) stem cells were prepared with approximately 3.0 mL of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and injected in the selected knees of patients in the study group. The mean Lysholm, Tegner activity scale, and VAS scores of patients in the study group improved significantly by the last follow-up visit. No major adverse events related to the injections were observed during the treatment and follow-up periods. The results were compared between the study and control groups, in which the patients had undergone arthroscopic debridement and PRP injection without stem cells. Although the preoperative mean Lysholm, Tegner activity scale, and VAS scores of the study group were significantly poorer than those of the control group, the clinical results at the last follow-up visit were similar and not significantly different between the two groups. The short-term results of our study are encouraging and demonstrate that infrapatellar fat pad-derived MSC therapy with intraarticular injections is safe, and provides assistance in reducing pain and improving function in patients with knee OA.

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TITLE: “Clinical results and second-look arthroscopic findings after treatment with adipose-derived stem cells for knee osteoarthritis”

SOURCE: Koh YG, Choi YJ, Kwon SK, Kim YS, Yeo JE. Clinical results and second-look arthroscopic findings after treatment with adipose-derived stem cells for knee osteoarthritis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 May;23(5):1308-16.

SUMMARY: Stem cell injections combined with arthroscopic lavage were administered to 30 elderly patients (≥65 years) with knee OA. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested from both buttocks by liposuction. After stromal vascular fractions were isolated, a mean of 4.04 × 10(6) stem cells (9.7 % of 4.16 × 10(7) stromal vascular fraction cells) were prepared and injected in the selected knees of patients after arthroscopic lavage. Outcome measures included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores, visual analog scale, and Lysholm score at preoperative and 3-, 12-, and 2-year follow-up visits. Sixteen patients underwent second-look arthroscopy. Almost all patients showed significant improvement in all clinical outcomes at the final follow-up examination. All clinical results significantly improved at 2-year follow-up compared to 12-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Among elderly patients aged >65 years, only five patients demonstrated worsening of Kellgren-Lawrence grade. On second-look arthroscopy, 87.5 % of elderly patients (14/16) improved or maintained cartilage status at least 2 years postoperatively. Moreover, none of the patients underwent total knee arthroplasty during this 2-year period. Adipose-derived stem cell therapy for elderly patients with knee OA was effective in cartilage healing, reducing pain, and improving function. Therefore, adipose-derived stem cell treatment appears to be a good option for OA treatment in elderly patients.

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TITLE: “Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints”

SOURCE: Pak J, Chang JJ, Lee JH, Lee SH. Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 Dec 1;14:337.

SUMMARY: Between 2009 and 2010, 91 patients were treated with autologous ADSCs with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for various orthopedic conditions. Stem cells in the form of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were injected with PRP into various joints (n = 100). All patients were followed for symptom improvement with visual analog score (VAS) at one month and three months. Approximately one third of the patients were followed up with third month magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injected sites. All patients were followed up by telephone questionnaires every six months for up to 30 months. The mean follow-up time for all patients was 26.62 ± 0.32 months. The follow-up time for patients who were treated in 2009 and early 2010 was close to three years. The relative mean VAS of patients at the end of one month follow-up was 6.55 ± 0.32, and at the end of three months follow-up was 4.43 ± 0.41. Post-procedure MRIs performed on one third of the patients at three months failed to demonstrate any tumor formation at the implant sites. Further, no tumor formation was reported in telephone long-term follow-ups. However, swelling of injected joints was common and was thought to be associated with death of stem cells. Also, tenosinovitis and tendonitis in elderly patients, all of which were either self-limited or were remedied with simple therapeutic measures, were common as well. Using both MRI tracking and telephone follow ups in 100 joints in 91 patients treated, no neoplastic complications were detected at any ADSC implantation sites. Based on our longitudinal cohort, the autologous and uncultured ADSCs/PRP therapy in the form of SVF could be considered to be safe when used as percutaneous local injections.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Pak 2013 PDF


TITLE: “Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Based Therapy for Severe Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial”

SOURCE: Pers YM, Rackwitz L, Ferreira R, Pullig O, Delfour C, Barry F, Sensebe L, Casteilla L, Fleury S, Bourin P, Noël D, Canovas F, Cyteval C, Lisignoli G, Schrauth J, Haddad D, Domergue S, Noeth U, Jorgensen C; ADIPOA Consortium. Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Based Therapy for Severe Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016 Jul;5(7):847-56.

SUMMARY: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most widespread musculoskeletal disorder in adults. It leads to cartilage damage associated with subchondral bone changes and synovial inflammation, causing pain and disability. The present study aimed at evaluating the safety of a dose-escalation protocol of intra-articular injected adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in patients with knee OA, as well as clinical efficacy as secondary endpoint. A bicentric, uncontrolled, open phase I clinical trial was conducted in France and Germany with regulatory agency approval for ASC expansion procedure in both countries. From April 2012 to December 2013, 18 consecutive patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA were treated with a single intra-articular injection of autologous ASCs. The study design consisted of three consecutive cohorts (six patients each) with dose escalation: low dose (2 × 10(6) cells), medium dose (10 × 10(6)), and high dose (50 × 10(6)). The primary outcome parameter was safety evaluated by recording adverse events throughout the trial, and secondary parameters were pain and function subscales of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index. After 6 months of follow-up, the procedure was found to be safe, and no serious adverse events were reported. Four patients experienced transient knee joint pain and swelling after local injection. Interestingly, patients treated with low-dose ASCs experienced significant improvements in pain levels and function compared with baseline. Our data suggest that the intra-articular injection of ASCs is a safe therapeutic alternative to treat severe knee OA patients. A placebo-controlled double-blind phase IIb study is being initiated to assess clinical and structural efficacy. Although this phase I study included a limited number of patients without a placebo arm, it showed that local injection of autologous adipose-derived stem cells was safe and well tolerated in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study also provides encouraging preliminary evidence of efficacy. Larger and controlled long-term studies are now mandatory to confirm whether this new strategy of cell therapy can improve pain and induce structural benefit in osteoarthritis.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Pers 2016 PDF


TITLE: “Intratendinous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) injection provides a safe, efficacious treatment for Achilles tendinopathy: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial at a 6-month follow-up”

SOURCE: Usuelli FG, Grassi M, Maccario C, Vigano' M, Lanfranchi L, Alfieri Montrasio U, de Girolamo L. Intratendinous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) injection provides a safe, efficacious treatment for Achilles tendinopathy: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial at a 6-month follow-up. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018 Jul;26(7):2000-2010.

SUMMARY: Fourty-four patients were recruited in the study; 23 of them were assigned to the PRP group whereas 21 to the SVF group, treated unilaterally or bilaterally for a total of 28 tendons per group. All patients (age 18-55 years) were clinically assessed pre-operatively and at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days from treatment, using the VAS pain scale, the VISA-A, the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score and the SF-36 form. The patients were also evaluated by ultrasound and magnetic resonance before treatment and after 4 (US only) and 6 months. Both treatments allowed for a significant improvement with respect to baseline. Comparing the two groups, VAS, AOFAS and VISA-A scored significantly better at 15 and 30 days in the SVF in comparison to PRP group (p < 0.05). At the following time points the scores were not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation has been found between clinical and radiological findings. Both PRP and SVF were safe, effective treatments for recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy. The patients treated with SVF obtained faster results, thus suggesting that such a treatment should be taken into consideration for those patients who require an earlier return to daily activities or sport.

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TITLE: “Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell Therapy: Safety and Feasibility in Different "Hospital Exemption" Clinical Applications”

SOURCE: Vériter S, André W, Aouassar N, Poirel HA, Lafosse A, Docquier PL, Dufrane D. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell Therapy: Safety and Feasibility in Different "Hospital Exemption" Clinical Applications. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 20;10(10):e0139566.

SUMMARY: Based on immunomodulatory, osteogenic, and pro-angiogenic properties of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), this study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of ASC-derived cell therapies for clinical indications. Two autologous ASC-derived products were proposed to 17 patients who had not experienced any success with conventional therapies: (1) a scaffold-free osteogenic three-dimensional graft for the treatment of bone non-union and (2) a biological dressing for dermal reconstruction of non-healing chronic wounds. Safety was studied using the quality control of the final product (genetic stability, microbiological/mycoplasma/endotoxin contamination) and the in vivo evaluation of adverse events after transplantation. Feasibility was assessed by the ability to reproducibly obtain the final ASC-based product with specific characteristics, the time necessary for graft manufacturing, the capacity to produce enough material to treat the lesion, the surgical handling of the graft, and the ability to manufacture the graft in line with hospital exemption regulations. For 16 patients (one patient did not undergo grafting because of spontaneous bone healing), in-process controls found no microbiological/mycoplasma/endotoxin contamination, no obvious deleterious genomic anomalies, and optimal ASC purity. Each type of graft was reproducibly obtained without significant delay for implantation and surgical handling was always according to the surgical procedure and the implantation site. No serious adverse events were noted for up to 54 months. We demonstrated that autologous ASC transplantation can be considered a safe and feasible therapy tool for extreme clinical indications of ASC properties and physiopathology of disease.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Veriter 2015 PDF