CARDIAC

Clinical Studies

TITLE: “First-in-man Safety and Efficacy of the Adipose Graft Transposition Procedure (AGTP) in Patients With a Myocardial Scar”

SOURCE: Bayes-Genis A, Gastelurrutia P, Cámara ML, Teis A, Lupón J, Llibre C, Zamora E, Alomar X, Ruyra X, Roura S, Revilla A, San Román JA, Gálvez-Montón C. First-in-man Safety and Efficacy of the Adipose Graft Transposition Procedure (AGTP) in Patients With a Myocardial Scar. EBioMedicine. 2016 May;7:248-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.03.027.

SUMMARY: This prospective, randomized single-center controlled study included 10 patients with established chronic transmural myocardial scars. Candidates for myocardial revascularization were randomly allocated into two treatment groups. In the control arm (n=5), the revascularizable area was treated with CABG and the non-revascularizable area was left untouched. Patients in the AGTP-treated arm (n=5) were treated with CABG and the non-revascularizable area was covered by a biological adipose graft. The primary endpoint was the appearance of adverse effects derived from the procedure including hospital admissions and death, and 24-hour Holter monitoring arrhythmias at baseline, 1week, and 3 and 12months. Secondary endpoints of efficacy were assessed by cardiac MRI. No differences in safety were observed between groups in terms of clinical or arrhythmic events. On follow-up MRI testing, participants in the AGTP-treated arm showed a borderline smaller left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV; p=0.09) and necrosis ratio (p=0.06) at 3months but not at 12months. The AGTP-treated patient with the largest necrotic area and most dilated chambers experienced a noted improvement in necrotic mass size (-10.8%), and ventricular volumes (LVEDV: -55.2mL and LVESV: -37.8mL at one year follow-up) after inferior AGTP. Our results indicate that AGTP is safe and may be efficacious in selected patients. Further studies are needed to assess its clinical value.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Bayes-Genis-A-2016


TITLE: “The Athena trials: Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells for refractory chronic myocardial ischemia with left ventricular dysfunction”

SOURCE: Henry TD, Pepine CJ, Lambert CR, Traverse JH, Schatz R, Costa M, Povsic TJ, David Anderson R, Willerson JT, Kesten S, Perin EC. The Athena trials: Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells for refractory chronic myocardial ischemia with left ventricular dysfunction. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 Feb 1;89(2):169-177.

SUMMARY: The Athena program consisted of two parallel, prospective, randomized (2:1, active: placebo), double-blind trials assessing intramyocardial (IM) ADRC delivery [40-million, n = 28 (ATHENA) and 80-million (ATHENA II) cells, n = 3]). Patients with an EF ≥20% but ≤45%, multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) not amenable to revascularization, inducible ischemia, and symptoms of either angina (CCS II-IV) or heart failure (NYHA Class II-III) on maximal medical therapy were enrolled. All patients underwent fat harvest procedure (≤450 mL adipose), on-site cell processing (Celution® System, Cytori Therapeutics), electromechanical mapping, and IM delivery of ADRCs or placebo. Enrollment was terminated prematurely due to non-ADRC-related adverse events and subsequent prolonged enrollment time. Thirty-one patients (17-ADRCs, 14-placebo) mean age 65 ± 8 years, baseline LVEF(%) 31.1 ± 8.7 (ADRC), 31.8 ± 7.7 (placebo) were enrolled. Change in V02 max favored ADRCs (+45.4 ± 222 vs. -9.5 ± 137 mL/min) but there was no difference in left ventricular function or volumes. At 12-months, heart failure hospitalizations occurred in 2/17 (11.7%) [ADRC] and 3/14 (21.4%) [placebo]. Differences in NYHA and CCS classes favored ADRCs at 12-months with significant improvement in MLHFQ (-21.6 + 13.9 vs. -5.5 + 23.8, P = 0.038). A small volume fat harvest, automated local processing, and IM delivery of autologous ADRCs is feasible with suggestion of benefit in "no option" CAD patients. Although the sample size is limited, the findings support feasibility and scalability for treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy with ADRCs.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Not available for public download


TITLE: “First experience in humans using adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells in the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction”

SOURCE: Houtgraaf JH, den Dekker WK, van Dalen BM, Springeling T, de Jong R, van Geuns RJ, Geleijnse ML, Fernandez-Aviles F, Zijlsta F, Serruys PW, Duckers HJ. First experience in humans using adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells in the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jan 31;59(5):539-40.

SUMMARY: The APOLLO trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, phase I/IIa study (NCT00442806) designed to assess the safety and feasibility of intracoronary infusion of ADRCs in the treatment of patients in the acute phase of a large ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). The main findings of the APOLLO trial at the 6-month clinical and angiographic follow-up time point are 1) liposuction to harvest ADRCs in the acute phase of an AMI is safe and feasible; 2) intracoronary infusion of freshly isolated ADRCs was safe and did not result in an alteration of coronary flow or any indication of microvascular obstruction; 3) no SAEs were related to the ADRC therapy; and 4) ADRC infusion resulted in a trend toward improved cardiac function, accompanied by a significant improvement

of the perfusion defect and a 50% reduction of myocardial scar formation. The latter is consistent with findings in preclinical studies and concordant with the presumed proangiogenic, antiapoptotic, and immunomodulatory working mechanism of ADRC therapy.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Not available for public download


TITLE: “Cryopreserved Off-the-Shelf Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Failure-A Safety Study”

SOURCE: Kastrup J, Haack-Sørensen M, Juhl M, Harary Søndergaard R, Follin B, Drozd Lund L, Mønsted Johansen E, Ali Qayyum A, Bruun Mathiasen A, Jørgensen E, Helqvist S, Jørgen Elberg J, Bruunsgaard H, Ekblond A. Cryopreserved Off-the-Shelf Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Failure-A Safety Study. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017 Nov;6(11):1963-1971.

SUMMARY: The present first-in-human clinical trial evaluated the safety and feasibility of a newly developed and cryopreserved Cardiology Stem Cell Centre adipose-derived stromal cell (CSCC_ASC) product from healthy donors for intramyocardial injection in ten patients with ischemic heart disease and ischemic heart failure (IHF). Batches of CSCC_ASC were isolated from three healthy donors by liposuction from abdominal adipose tissue. Adipose mesenchymal stromal cells were culture expanded in bioreactors without the use of animal constituents, cryopreserved, and stored in vials in nitrogen dry-storage containers until use. Direct injection of CSCC_ASC into the myocardium did not cause any complications or serious adverse events related to either treatment or cell administration in a 6-month follow-up period. Four out of ten heart failure patients developed donor-specific de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antibodies, and two out of ten patients had donor-specific HLA antibodies already at baseline. There were no clinical symptoms or changes in inflammatory parameters in the follow-up period that indicated an ongoing immune response. There was a tendency toward improvement in cardiac function after CSCC_ASC treatment at 6-month follow-up: left ventricular end systolic volume decreased and left ventricular ejection fraction increased. In addition, exercise capacity increased. These changes were independent of the presence or absence of HLA antibodies. It is concluded that the newly developed cryopreserved product CSCC_ASC from healthy donors was a safe and feasible treatment. We observed a tendency toward efficacy in patients with IHF. These findings have to be confirmed in larger placebo controlled clinical trials.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Not available for public download


TITLE: “Stem cell registry programme for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: what benefits does it derive?”

SOURCE: Nesteruk J, Voronina N, Kundt G, Donndorf P, Klopsch C, Kaminski A, Duckers HJ, Steinhoff G. Stem cell registry programme for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: what benefits does it derive? ESC Heart Fail. 2017 May;4(2):105-111.

SUMMARY: We analysed 150 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, who received intramyocardial CD133+ bone marrow mononuclear stem cell treatment combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or CABG alone. The mortality rate, major adverse cerebral and cardiac events, and functional outcome parameters were evaluated for the time period up to 14 years follow-up. As a result, we have stratified the patient population (96 patients) into responders and non-responders. Furthermore, the analysis of relevant predictors of good response to CD133+ bone marrow mononuclear stem cell treatment was performed. Several positive tendencies related to stem cells transplantation were demonstrated. First, no significant difference in major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events was observed between stem cell and control group up to 14 years follow-up. Second, an improvement of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) in stem cell group retained for 5 years in contrast with CABG-only group, where no significant changes in LVEF after 2 years were observed. In addition, LVEF under 30% and left ventricle end diastolic diameter above 60 mm were independent predictors of functional response to CD133+ cell therapy. Participants with overt heart failure benefit most from CABG combined with intramyocardial injection of CD133+ bone marrow mononuclear cell within the group. An improvement LVEF in stem cell group remained for 5 years in contrast with the CABG-only group. The patients, in whom the improvement of both LVEF and LVED was observed, have benefited by increased life expectancy.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Nesteruk-J-2017


TITLE: “Adipose-derived regenerative cells in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: The PRECISE Trial”

SOURCE: Perin EC, Sanz-Ruiz R, Sánchez PL, Lasso J, Pérez-Cano R, Alonso-Farto JC, Pérez-David E, Fernández-Santos ME, Serruys PW, Duckers HJ, Kastrup J, Chamuleau S, Zheng Y, Silva GV, Willerson JT, Fernández-Avilés F. Adipose-derived regenerative cells in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: The PRECISE Trial. Am Heart J. 2014 Jul;168(1):88-95.e2.

SUMMARY: Procedural, postoperative, and follow-up safety end points were monitored up to 36 months. After baseline measurements, efficacy was assessed by echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomography (6, 12, and 18 months), metabolic equivalents and maximal oxygen consumption (MVO2) (6 and 18 months), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (6 months). We enrolled 21 ADRC-treated and 6 control patients. Liposuction was well tolerated, ADRCs were successfully prepared, and transendocardial injections were feasible in all patients. No malignant arrhythmias were seen. Adverse events were similar between groups. Metabolic equivalents and MVO2 values were preserved over time in ADRC-treated patients but declined significantly in the control group. The difference in the change in MVO2 from baseline to 6 and 18 months was significantly better in ADRC-treated patients compared with controls. The ADRC-treated patients showed significant improvements in total left ventricular mass by magnetic resonance imaging and wall motion score index. Single-photon emission computed tomography results suggested a reduction in inducible ischemia in ADRC-treated patients up to 18 months. Isolation and transendocardial injection of autologous ADRCs in no-option patients were safe and feasible. Our results suggest that ADRCs may preserve ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, and exercise capacity in these patients.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Not available for public download


TITLE: “Cardiac Function Improvement and Bone Marrow Response -: Outcome Analysis of the Randomized PERFECT Phase III Clinical Trial of Intramyocardial CD133+ Application After Myocardial Infarction”

SOURCE: Steinhoff G, Nesteruk J, Wolfien M, Kundt G; PERFECT Trial Investigators Group, Börgermann J, David R, Garbade J, Große J, Haverich A, Hennig H, Kaminski A, Lotz J, Mohr FW, Müller P, Oostendorp R, Ruch U, Sarikouch S, Skorska A, Stamm C, Tiedemann G, Wagner FM, Wolkenhauer O. Cardiac Function Improvement and Bone Marrow Response -: Outcome Analysis of the Randomized PERFECT Phase III Clinical Trial of Intramyocardial CD133+ Application After Myocardial Infarction. EBioMedicine. 2017 Aug;22:208-224.

SUMMARY: The phase III clinical trial PERFECT was designed to assess clinical safety and efficacy of intramyocardial CD133+ bone marrow stem cell treatment combined with CABG for induction of cardiac repair. Multicentre, double-blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial. The study was conducted across six centres in Germany October 2009 through March 2016 and stopped due slow recruitment after positive interim analysis in March 2015. Post-infarction patients with chronic ischemia and reduced LVEF (25-50%). Eighty-two patients were randomised to two groups receiving intramyocardial application of 5ml placebo or a suspension of 0.5-5×106 CD133+. Primary endpoint was delta (∆) LVEF at 180days (d) compared to baseline measured in MRI. Safety (n=77): 180d survival was 100%, MACE n=2, SAE n=49, without difference between placebo and CD133+. Efficacy (n=58): The LVEF improved from baseline LVEF 33.5% by +9.6% at 180d, p=0.001 (n=58). Treatment groups were not different in ∆LVEF (ANCOVA: Placebo +8.8% vs. CD133+ +10.4%, ∆CD133+vs placebo +2.6%, p=0.4). Responders (R) classified by ∆LVEF≥5% after 180d were 60% of the patients (35/58) in both treatment groups. ∆LVEF in ANCOVA was +17.1% in (R) vs. non-responders (NR) (∆LVEF 0%, n=23). NR were characterized by a preoperative response signature in peripheral blood with reduced CD133+ EPC (RvsNR: p=0.005) and thrombocytes (p=0.004) in contrast to increased Erythropoeitin (p=0.02), and SH2B3 mRNA expression (p=0.073). Actuarial computed mean survival time was 76.9±3.32months (R) vs. +72.3±5.0months (NR), HR 0.3 [Cl 0.07-1.2]; p=0.067.Using a machine learning 20 biomarker response parameters were identified allowing preoperative discrimination with an accuracy of 80% (R) and 84% (NR) after 10-fold cross-validation. The PERFECT trial analysis demonstrates that the regulation of induced cardiac repair is linked to the circulating pool of CD133+ EPC and thrombocytes, associated with SH2B3 gene expression. Based on these findings, responders to cardiac functional improvement may be identified by a peripheral blood biomarker signature.

PUBLIC DOWNLOAD OF FULL MANUSCRIPT: Steinhoff-G-2017