The medical term for body fat, adipose is considered an organ whose main function is to store energy in the form of lipids. Adipose tissue is made of lipid cells and stroma, a surrounding matrix of blood vessels and connective tissue that supports the lipid cells embedded within it. The stroma contains a very rich supply of stem cells, known as Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF), considered by many to be ideal for application in regenerative therapies.

Adult stem cells  
Stem cells residing in many tissues of adults that can give rise to specialized cells in specific tissues.

The growth of new blood vessels from existing vasculature.

Cells or tissues derived from a donor.

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a process where multicellular organisms efficiently dispose of cells.

A patient’s own cells or tissue.

Bone marrow 
In adults, bone marrow is primarily found inside the hip and breast bones and serves as part of the body’s hematopoietic and immune systems. Bone marrow houses a number of adult stem and progenitor cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.

Cell-based therapies
Treatment where stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues.

Cell culture
Growth of cells in vitro (outside of the body) in an artificial medium for research.

Cellular Differentiation
The process where a cell changes from one cell type to another, most commonly a more specialized cell type.

Clinical translation 
The process where basic scientific research becomes medical therapy.

Clinical trial 
Tests on human subjects designed to evaluate the safety and/or effectiveness of new medical treatments.

Embryonic stem cells
Stem cells derived from a blastocyst that (unlike adult stem cells) can give rise to every cell type in every organ of the body.

Endothelial cells
Endothelial cells form a single cell layer that lines all blood vessels and regulates exchanges between the bloodstream and the surrounding tissues. Signals from endothelial cells organize the growth and development of connective tissue cells that form the surrounding layers of the blood-vessel wall.

Endothelial progenitor cells
Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are generally defined as circulating cells that express a variety of cell surface markers similar to those expressed by vascular endothelial cells, and assist in the formation of new blood vessels.

Nanovesicles, between 50-150 nm in size, characterized by endocytic origin. Exosomes contain a subset of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that have important roles in local and systemic intercellular communication.

Fibrosis is defined by the overgrowth, hardening, and/or scarring of various tissues and is the end result of chronic inflammatory reactions induced by a variety of factors, including persistent infections, autoimmune reactions, allergic responses, chemical insults, radiation, and tissue injury.

Ischemia is defined as inadequate blood supply (circulation) to a local area due to blockage of the blood vessels supplying the area.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) 
Adult stem cells found in bone marrow and blood. HSCs are capable of producing cells that make up the blood and the immune system.

The process where immune and other blood cells are produced from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) [1].

Referring to two objects, such as cells or organisms, of a different age, typically young and aged.

Referring to two objects, such as cells or organisms, of a common age.

Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) 
Stem cells engineered to become the cell types found in an embryo. While iPSC cells and embryonic stem cells share many characteristics, they are not identical and researchers are currently exploring the ways they differ.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
Adult stem cells found in several places in the body, including the bone marrow, skin and fat tissue. They produce cells that help other stem cells to properly function.

A small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression [3].

Multipotent stem cells 
Stem cells that can give rise to several different types of specialized cells in specific tissues; for example, blood stem cells can produce the different types of cells that make up the blood, but not the cells of other organs such as the liver or the brain. They are one of the three classes of stem cells: multipotent, pluripotent and totipotent.

Neural stem cells 
Specialized stem cells responsible for repairing nerve-insulating myelin in the brain or spinal cord. These can be derived from other types of stem cells such as mesenchymal cells.

Human embryonic stem cells
Stem cells derived from donated embryos. They can naturally produce every type of cell in the body. One concern about their potential therapeutic use is that they have been found to cause tumors.

Parabiosis is a class of techniques where two living organisms are surgically joined together to develop a single, shared physiological system, such as a shared circulatory system [2].

Pluripotent stem cells 
Pluripotent stem cells are those cells that are capable of giving rise to all cell types in the body, but do not give rise to the supporting structures (placenta, amnion, chorion) required for development of an organism. They are one of the three classes of stem cells: multipotent, pluripotent and totipotent.

Progenitor cells 
An intermediate cell type between stem cells and differentiated cells. Progenitor cells have the potential to give rise to a limited number or type of specialized cells and have a reduced capacity for self-renewal. Also called precursor cells.

Regenerative Medicine 
An interdisciplinary branch of medicine with the goal of replacing, regenerating or repairing damaged tissue to restore normal function. Regenerative treatments include cellular therapy, gene therapy and tissue engineering approaches.

An Advanced Regen treatment process where aged blood stem cells are co-cultured with young blood cells that results in the repair and rejuvenation of aged cells by factors from the young blood cells.

A special type of cell division in stem cells where they make copies of themselves.

Senescence is the process where cells irreversibly stop dividing and enter a state of permanent growth arrest without undergoing cell death. Cellular senescence is sometimes referred to as cells that are ‘sleeping’ because they gradually lose function.

Stem cells 
Cells that have both the capacity to self-renew (make more stem cells by cell division) and to differentiate into mature, specialized cells.

Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) 
A rich mixture of stem cells obtained from adipose (fat) tissue consisting of mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cells.

Tissue-specific stem cells 
Stem cells that can give rise to specialized cells in specific tissues; blood stem cells, for example, can produce the different types of cells that make up the blood, but not the cells of other organs such as the liver or the brain. Includes all stem cells other than pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. Also called adult or somatic stem cells.

The ability to give rise to all the cells of the body and cells that aren’t part of the body but support embryonic development, such as the placenta and umbilical cord.

Translational research 
Research that focuses on how to use knowledge gleaned from basic research to develop new drugs, treatments or therapies.

Umbilical cord stem cells 
Stem cells recovered from umbilical cord at the time of birth. These can be from, 1) cord blood, which resemble stem cells found in adult bone marrow and are thus more like adult stem cells than embryonic stem cells, or 2) derived from other parts of the cord, such as Wharton’s jelly or subepithelium.

Unipotent stem cell 
A unipotent stem cell refers to a cell that can differentiate along only one lineage. The word 'uni' itself is derived from the Latin word 'unus,' meaning one. Found in adult tissues, a unipotent stem cell, in comparison with other types of stem cells, has the lowest differentiation potential.


Akashi, D. Traver, T. Miyamoto, I.L. Weissman, A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages, Nature, 404 (2000) 193-197.

McCay et al., Gerontologia 1957

Ambros V (September 2004). "The functions of animal microRNAs". Nature. 431 (7006): 350–5.